The Association for the Promotion of German Hat Fashions, officially constituted on October 31, , was yet an additional fashion-oriented organization established during World War I. Com- mittees were organized to promote the newest fashions in hats through notices to the press, exhibitions, public lectures, and close communication with neutral foreign economic associations and domestic chambers of commerce. Equally important, the Verband association maintained a close relationship with the well-established Werkbund.
In turn, the Werkbund, which had relocated its offices from Munich to Berlin in , strengthened its connection with the fashion world by founding a branch, immediately after the war began, specifically designated to help the fashion industry. One hundred designs by specially selected fashion salons were modeled by well-known actresses before an enthusiastic crowd. Also good for publicity, throughout the hat promotion Verband was given two pages in each issue of the popular fashion magazine Elegante Welt.
This newest and much larger organization was serious in its goal of furthering both domestic and worldwide fashion connections. Welcome, though, are all of us who, in the spiritualization, refinement, and rendering of our independent fashion production, see both a national and international cultural task. Leading names in the fashion world became significantly involved in this new Verband, such as Otto Haas-Heye, the fashion designer and owner of the successful Modehaus Alfred-Marie.
It also underscored the urgency of strengthening the domestic fashion industry, especially given the context of war and the loss of certain trading partners. Due to the wartime severance from French fashion, members felt that this was the opportune moment to attain their long-held wish for independence from Paris. Importantly, they desired to display their knowledge, their talent, and their designs to the German public.
By the end of its first year, the Verband der Damenmode und ihrer Industrie could boast membership figures of well over one thousand; members included manufacturers, designers, Konfektion firms, wholesalers, and owners and managers of department stores, smaller enterprises, and workshops from all over Germany and beyond.
In line with these cultural propaganda efforts, the fashion branch of the Werkbund exhibited in several major Swiss cities, including Basel, Zurich, and Bern. Next, top German designers and firms, mostly from Berlin, premiered their best fashions, such as street and afternoon clothes, furs, and evening attire. As one of its activities, the recon- stituted Verband presented the newest collections of all the outstanding German fashion design houses during a Modewoche fashion week held in Berlin.
And despite the substantial economic pressures facing the industry, the Verband also promoted a close relationship between art and fashion, especially through its publications and events. Already in , Berlin had several hundred business concerns tied to Konfektion. These firms officially employed well over , workers, with hundreds upon thousands more laboring as home seamstresses and tailors for Konfektion enterprises or for middlemen. And, partly because Paris had disappeared from the German fashion horizon during the war, numerous other firms connected with the ready-to-wear industry had recently been established.
By allowing Konfektion manufacturers to exhibit their products in the same venue as exclusive high fashion salons, the Modewoche placed a much-deserved spotlight on Berliner Konfektion, which gained new customers and international acclaim. The first Modewoche, in which approximately firms participated, took place from August 5 to 13, , only three months before the guns and tanks of the Great War fell silent.
By , living conditions, particularly in many of the larger cities, had become almost unbearable. Food and clothing supplies were exceedingly meager, coal was virtually unattainable, influenza and widespread hunger raged across the nation. Yet, the German military would not surrender. The board of the Verband strove, therefore, to put the Modewoche in the context of national economic and cultural concerns, employing patriotic and didactic tones in its discourse.
Although total purchases did not result in a significant economic boost, designs were sold to a range of clients, from dress shops in the smallest German towns to neutral foreign customers. Both the show and the fashion week illuminated the successful combination of artistic style, good design, and economic concerns.
The last painful weeks of the war, however, and the defeat that followed temporarily brought the German fashion world to a screeching halt. The final German offensive against the British front lines began on March 21, Four months later, the French and the English pulled together for one last great counter-offensive.
Additionally, since the United States had entered the war the year before, the Allied front was being steadily reinforced by the arrival of thousands of American soldiers. Germany had lost its last-ditch gamble. By the end of September, the German Army Command came to the realization that there was no prospect of forcing the enemy to seek peace. General Erich Ludendorff urged the German chancellor to sue for an armistice.
Scapegoats, of course, were needed so that the High Command of the army would not have to shoulder the blame. World War I was over. According to estimates, 10 million people lost their lives and countless more were homeless. Those who fought and survived the slaughter carried with them grave and visible physical injuries, as well as untold invisible psychological scars.
Along with almost complete disarmament and loss of its colonies, Germany also had to give up some of its territory rich in iron and coal. Article of the treaty, the war guilt clause, which stated that Germany bore full responsibility for the war, was a national humiliation and outraged most Germans. Further, the total amount of war reparations Germany would have to pay was left blank, not to be decided for two years. The delegates were told that if the German government did not fully agree to all stipulations within a specified period of time, Germany would be invaded and occupied.
In the hearts of many Germans, it was a Schmachfrieden, a shameful peace. The intention was to remind the nation that German-Jewish mothers also had much reason to grieve. Jewish husbands and sons had fought bravely and honorably for Germany. More than , Jews had volunteered for the army. An age-old scapegoat had been resurrected with a vengeance. Anti-Semitism had also surfaced occasionally and sometimes vehemently in the cultural debates of the pre-war years.
But much like the stark competitiveness between France and Germany that was exacerbated by the war, anti-Semitism in the cultural sphere, too, intensified with the conflict. For example, anti-Semitic remarks that negatively linked the pervasiveness of modernism with the Jews had appeared intermittently, but did not gain full momentum until World War I. Although the two countries seemed to disagree about virtually everything, one thing they had in common was a growing amount of articulated anti-Semitism that decried the alleged insidious influence of the Jews.
Lectures and articles appeared in Germany and in France during the war that inveighed against the Jews for undermining the cultures of both their own and neighboring countries. They were linked with modernists as symbolic of all that was considered degenerate in contemporary society. Because of their importance in the fashion world, they were charged with having a stranglehold on that sector of the German economy. German High Command. It requested an accounting of the specific number of Jews serving in combat or front-line positions compared with those serving behind the lines, in combat support and in communications.
Although the Judenzahlung was supposedly undertaken to counter increasing anti-Jewish denunciations, the implication was clear.
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When army officials refused to publicize the results, which showed that Jews, in fact, were represented proportionately on the battlefronts, German Jews became deeply embittered. And anti-Semitic agitation flourished. The song became extremely popular, even gaining the attention of Kaiser Wilhelm, who bestowed Lissauer with an honorary medal. They had the Iron Cross decorations to prove it. Hermann Freudenberg, president of the successful Verband der deutschen Mode-Industrie, was but one of many.
Additionally, many of the wartime condemnations against women who were supposedly wearing overtly suggestive or inappropriately opulent clothing were specifically anti-Semitic, whether or not the women in question actually were Jewish. This criticism harked back to a much earlier period in history, when Jews throughout much of Europe were confined to ghettos. There, they were forced to wear the Jewish badge in Germany, a yellow circle that was affixed to the outer garment above the heart , and were restricted in their choice of apparel by explicit sumptuary laws. These sixteenth- and seventeenth-century laws regulated Jewish clothing from headwear to footwear, and also limited the amount of jewelry that Jews could wear.
The regulations had been passed in response to the Gentile belief that Jews, particularly Jewish women, were prone to excess and extravagance in their clothing. One such crisis was World War I. The difference in the anti-Semitism of the pre-war and post-war periods was not in its content. Anti-Semites introduced little that was new into their arguments. Rather, the difference lay in its virulence and its wider acceptance.
Successful in their efforts, anti-Semites gained increasing numbers of adherents to their cause. This anti-Semitism, along with zealous nationalism and fiery reactions to the latest and sometimes provocative clothing trends, heightened the fashion debate in Germany to fever pitch. What days! The accentuation has slid downwards and upwards. And, in the abbreviation lies — the woman. From the sporty lady to the Tiller Girl,1 from the teenager to the grandmama, from the pageboy to the bared knee, all is accentuated as much as possible from the head down and the legs up, including cami-knickers the size of a handkerchief and evening dresses as narrow as a scarf.
What remains for later? Both in France and in Germany, fashion was central to the culture of those years.
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It certainly provoked heated and sometimes acrimonious debate. Persons in favor of the new fashions interpreted them as the visible liberation of women from physical constraints like the corset and unmanageably long hemlines, from traditional social mores, and from political impotence. To them, the new female fashions were the sartorial expression of gender roles turned upside down and of a world gone mad. In Germany, four elements made up the core of the fashion debate in the s, particularly the discourse surrounding the image and clothing of the New Woman.
While German men had gone to the battlefields, women had gone to work in war factories and in hospitals, had single-handedly cared for the children, managed the shop, kept up the farm, and maintained the home front. Although there always had been a large number of women working in Germany, they comprised an invisible, poorly paid workforce, rarely referred to and mostly unacknowledged. New areas of employment included machine-building, chemicals, mining, metalworking, and transportation, sectors of the economy that had traditionally been closed to women.
To insure that. Thousands of women were removed from their war jobs. Although it was ultimately successful, the campaign did not go as smoothly as the authorities had hoped. Some women resented being pushed back into domestic employment after earning better wages in war factories. They responded by resisting the efforts and offers extended by the demobilization authorities. By early , labor shortages emerged due to an inflationary boom and women were enticed back to work. But these post-war opportunities were not in heavy industry.
Although clerical and service jobs were gradually opening to women, post- war female employment mostly consisted of the same gender-specific jobs of the pre- war period — in the textile, clothing, food, and cleaning sectors. Additionally, German women had been constitutionally granted the vote in November , a hard-won right that, according to individual perception, could translate into long overdue political empowerment or the further demise of traditional society. Exacerbating these deep fears were the highly visible changes in female image and conduct — public smoking and drinking; provocative dancing that exuded sexuality; the widened use of cosmetics; the stunning popularity of the short haircut which went by such names as the pageboy, the bob, the shingle, the Eton crop, and the Bubikopf ;9 developments in fashion that did away with customary feminine ideals and con- straints; and the recalcitrance of young women to submit to a return to what had been.
The war may not have been the catalyst for the new fashions, but it pop- ularized them as women went to work in factories and began wearing simple sheaths and skirts that allowed for greater movement. And the myth of perfectability, the beauty myth, became and remains the dominant component of female culture. Other styles had come and gone that the average female consumer had not fallen prey to.
The women of the post-war years consciously chose to spend their hard-earned money on the sporty new haircuts and the looser, less restrictive dress styles that seemed to symbolize youth and freedom. But the act of spending their own money, as they liked, and on the styles they liked, felt immensely liberating to them in an intensely personal way. Numer- ous elements contributed to encourage, and to fulfill, the insatiable demand to be stylish. These included simpler sewing patterns, inexpensive artificial fabrics that were washable, and the growing use of sewing machines or home seamstresses to more affordably recreate the latest styles.
By the mids, fashionable clothing was no longer solely for the well-to-do. Dress patterns, modeled upon the latest couture designs, enlarged the circle of fashion participants to include women of the working class and lower middle-class who formerly had been excluded because of their limited economic means. Magazines like die neue linie informed the public about questions of taste, particularly about tasteful lifestyles and fashion taste.
There were growing numbers of young women who adopted the new look as their daily uniform quite early in the decade. So, underneath her clothing, she wore a bra designed to flatten, rather than to accentuate, her bust. The next step would be nakedness which, he warned, was a sin. To comply with this ordinance, women would have to wrap a skirt-like cloth over their pants while making their way to and from the train station. For example, shorter skirts meant less protection from the cold and a constant need for hosiery. The higher heels changed the walk and, sometimes, ruined the foot of the wearer.
The constraints of the boned corset were now often replaced by the confines of rubber girdles. The push for women to be sporty and active paralleled the push for them to be thin. And without restrictive under- garments, the straight and slender line of the s was difficult for many women to replicate. The mass emergence of this image in Germany, however, would have to wait. In the immediate post-war years, many Germans were faced with living the tragic repercussions of the Great War.
The period following World War I, to , was difficult, at best, and cata- strophic for many. Those years witnessed social turmoil as demobilized soldiers came home, political ferment from both the extreme left and right, attempted overthrows of the young Weimar government, unprecedented inflation, great hunger, mass unemploy- ment, and foreign occupation. They were also fearful of the changes that would greet them upon their return home. Rapidly rising inflation wreaked havoc as the conversion from wartime over-expansion to rapid contraction in peacetime took place.
Raw materials were in stringent quantity, and dangerous shortages of even the most basic food necessities were common. Clothing and shoe supplies were non-existent to most Germans. These establishments, along with used shoe centers, remained in business until when they were shut down. Conditions further deteriorated during the hyperinflation years of and Displays included artistic buttons and textiles, embroidery, decorative items, hats, lingerie, purses, lace, and jewelry.
While the purchasing power of money has sunk so low that thousands upon thousands cannot purchase a suit anymore, and their last threadbare skirts or pants have to be worn also on Sundays, the bourgeoisie of Berlin has organized a Mode-Woche [sic]. Despite such reactions, the Modewoche continued, albeit under increasingly difficult conditions.
Again, the importance of fashion to Germany, both culturally and economically, was emphasized, as were the ties between art and industry. First, it was economically valuable because it created work for all of the people involved in bringing the fashion week to fruition. The recent world war was commented on solely through veiled language. No specific remarks and virtually no allusions were made in either Styl or its newsletters to the grievous economic conditions. Only the November issue made even a passing reference,71 but did not acknowledge either the financial misery or the political upheaval that most Germans were experiencing.
Instead, Styl continued to target an elite readership with essays that ranged in subject from the latest styles and beauty trends to costume history and popular sports for the upper class, such as sailing and tennis. There were, however, perceptible outward modifications that indicated the worsening economic situation was also affecting this elite publication. Beginning in January , along with a change in publisher, the pages were smaller in size and the paper was slightly thinner.
Published during the worst inflation years, the journal finally succumbed to the grave economic turmoil, as did so many things in Germany at the time. Continuing inflation further devalued the mark in the post-war years. In , it took eight marks to obtain 1 dollar. By mid, 1 dollar equaled 7, marks.
In February , 40, marks were worth 1 dollar, and by August, one million marks equaled one dollar. At the peak of hyperinflation, November , one liter of milk cost 20 billion marks, bus fares within the city generally cost 15 billion marks, and the price of sending a letter from Germany to America was well over 1 billion marks. In Berlin, a shawl with mittens cost 3 billion marks. In October , toward the beginning of the inflationary period, a similar skirt could be purchased for 3, marks; by October , the asking price had risen to million marks.
The suggestions, however, were not always useful since thread, lining material, and even the most basic textiles were often difficult to locate or exceedingly expensive to purchase because of shortages and an all-encompassing inflation. Those hardest hit by the severe economic conditions were the ones who could afford the losses the least, persons on fixed incomes, workers who had always struggled to make ends meet, and single-parent households. German soldiers had died during the war. Veterans with legs or arms missing, selling newspapers or begging on street corners, were omnipresent in post-war Germany, common sights that the painters Otto Dix and George Grosz immortalized in their scathing artistic documentaries of the period.
And so, for the , German war widows and their children, the only chance for survival lay in finding work.
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This gender imbalance created a large pool of women in the labor force,84 many of whom had worked during the war in factories, war-essential branches of industry, or in government offices. In , there were close to 11—12 million women employed in Germany. Percentage-wise, this was higher than any other European country. And although half of them continued to work in traditionally female jobs like domestic service, textiles, and agriculture, the media zeroed in on those women who were now finding employment in formerly male-designated white-collar positions — as secretaries, typists, stenographers, and salesclerks.
But, of course, this media-constructed image contra- dicted reality. It also caused much attention to be focused upon the diminished number of available men. It is within this context that a German newspaper article on fashion appeared in It is a fate that threatens her more than ever before in the terrible crisis we are having to live through right now. She does not want to commit gender suicide by becoming an unmarried victim, a fate that is caused by the decrease in men who are interested and able to marry. And she bemoaned the despised new fashions that had caused women to foolishly lose their sense of self.
Something had gone terribly wrong. The accentuation of the blouse is reduced to a minimum; in fact, the newest fashion prefers to let this specific feminine attribute disappear altogether, and elevates the board-like flat chest of the underdeveloped and the tubercular [female] to the mark of dignified elegance. Who would be able in twilight to differentiate a woman in such an outfit from a man? Oh, irony of life! She insists on wearing a summer fur, which is only meant for cool evenings at sea, even if she dies of heat. Health concerns are not an issue for the snob lady. Only what is fashionable truly matters.
Her opinion resonated with those who were also critical of the new styles, mass consumption, and the numerous perceptible changes in women. However, it hardly mattered to the growing numbers of young women who, despite the grave shortages and troubled times, attempted to replicate the most popular female media image of s mass culture — the New Woman.
It is ridiculous to lie about the supremacy of Paris in the fashion sector. The nationalism of the war years had waned, and German women were once more clamoring for French-inspired fashions. In response, German fashion designers resumed their seasonal visits to the Paris fashion shows, not only for ideas that they would later combine with their own concepts, but also to purchase prototypes of the most popular designs to alter and mass produce for the Konfektion industry.
By , however, international events influenced the German fashion debate. Rather, the fault once again lay with dangerous foreign, especially French, influences. Economics, politics, and nationalism had returned as partners in the debates surrounding fashion. Although many of the terms of the Versailles peace treaty embittered Germans, the issue of war reparations elicited particular resentment. Left undecided for two years, in the Allied Powers handed Germany a bill for billion gold marks, a sum to be paid out over a period of years in money and in goods.
Only the first payment was made in full; succeeding payments were greatly reduced and then postponed. The government argued that it could not possibly pay such enormous installments without collapsing. Conversely, the Allies, particularly France, suspected that Germany was purposefully trying to bankrupt itself in order to repudiate its reparations liability.
England took a slightly kinder view. Conferences followed in an attempt to work out the impasse and avoid further confrontations, but failed. After declaring Germany in default on its delivery of telegraph poles and coal, French and Belgian troops marched into the Ruhr region on January 11, German reaction was one of immense outrage.
Combined with intense nationalistic fervor, a tone of equal parts anger and patriotism colored the long months that followed. Political tensions increased both within Germany and between Germans in the Ruhr and their French occupiers. Violence erupted at times; for instance, at the Krupp factory in Essen when French soldiers killed thirteen German workers and injured fifty-two more. Inflation, an ongoing problem in the immediate post-war years, now spiraled completely out of control.
Anti-French posters popped up everywhere, some of which featured colonial black French soldiers in disparaging imagery. And in March , within the framework of an exhibition about the development of fashion since the twelfth century, staff and students organized a special presentation, the receipts of which would go solely to benefit German citizens living in the occupied area. That changed the very next year. In February , only weeks after French troops had marched into the Ruhr, the Association of the German Fashion Industry called for a boycott of all French fashion items.
We also know that we harm ourselves in multiple ways if we do not travel to Paris. We would find it abominable if [German] fashion representatives traveled to Paris and made purchases there at a moment when our countrymen in the Ruhr Valley. It is not for us to shield our eyes from the fact that the French are doing absolutely everything conceivable to ruin us.
Those who have no feeling for this. It had cost Germany billions of marks, and had caused untold economic damage and unfathomable social dislocation. It appeared that a major international political and economic crisis had ended. Moreover, rightly or wrongly, those years have often come to represent the best that was German, the finest of the Weimar Republic. Berlin became the center of an artistic explosion. Emerging in full force somewhat later in Germany because of the manifold crises of the post-war years, she now seemed to be everywhere.
And the fashions with which she chose to adorn herself provoked intense, often hostile, debate. A charming Bubikopf — says the hairdresser A model of depravity — says Aunt Klotilde A complex of sexual problems — says the psychoanalyst Comrade and soul friend — says the youth Miserable housewife — says the reactionary Expensive — says the bachelor The best customer — says the stockings dealer An unhappiness for my son — says the mother-in-law The center of the sanitorium — says the doctor The same since the dawn of history — says the wise man.
Representations of the New Woman abounded in German fashion magazines by the mids, and many women attempted to emulate these images. Seemingly unisex clothing, noticeable cosmetics, and cropped haircuts were all part of the look. Against the Masculinization of Woman. At first it seemed like a charming novelty that fragile and slender women cut their long hair and appeared in a page-boy cut; that they wore dresses which hung down in an almost perfectly straight line, denying the voluptuousness of the female body.
Even the most traditional men were not scandalized by this. But the male sensibility started to take offense at this when the fashion, which was so becoming to young girls, was appropriated by all women. Then the trend went even further; women no longer wanted to appear only asexual. And we observe more often now that the bobbed haircut with its curls is disappearing, and is being replaced by the modern, masculine hairstyle: sleek and brushed straight back.
Rather, the masculinization of female fashions was perceived as visual evidence of other disturbing developments. The primary role of the war in creating this new female recurred as a theme throughout. Not only did the war destroy the patriarchal order, but the effects of technology and a new order dictated by the machine placed the institution of marriage in great danger. This masculinization could only have grievous consequences for the larger society. A few contemporary female critics also warned against the masculinization of women.
She elaborated,. Amid the general storm of destruction, a voracious striving for the pleasures of life came into play. A shortage of food created an artificial thinness on the part of women, who were quickly raised to the status of idols. The effacement of social distinctions also played a part in forcing the differences between men and women to collapse. From there develops the naturally slender body. Woman is not becoming masculine. She is only becoming an independent being. The woman is once again proving her capriciousness. The masculinization of the woman supersedes masculinity itself.
In epochs when the man is very masculine. For this reason, the suffering woman responds ironically to this neutered being by parodying his masculinity. Not all responses to the image of the New Woman were acrimonious. There were ways of conveying agendas and opinions without the hostility that marked so much of the public discourse. Tongue-in-cheek cartoons that parodied her perceived masculinization filled contemporary magazines and journals. She stands in the window to be seen by all, a skinny woman, unmoving. Cloth for her costume was apparently lacking — for what she shows on top is woeful.
She cannot boast — she has no bust, The bodice is cover for the whole body. She has no hips — she has no lust, this leftover of a woman! Who is this exclamation point of need? Is it Starvation personified? Or just the newest trend in fashion? And while there was an enormous fascination in Germany with all things American, there was also a great fear. America represented modernism in its most heightened form.
Therefore, Americanism and all that it represented, including the new fashions, elicited polarized opinions, arousing either enthusiasm or hostility. In an article published in Der Querschnitt, Poiret suggested that fashion responds to the strongest social and political currents of the time. Pants for women symbolized their emancipation, as did the short, boyish hairstyles. There was no denying it; the dance craze, particularly American imports such as the Shimmy and the Charleston, had hit Germany. In Berlin alone, there were over dance bands. Tastelessness upon tastelessness! It made them feel good and helped them forget their worries, at least for a while.
Mostly to jazz, which was also an American import. It knocks down every hint of dignity, correct posture, and starched collars. Afternoon dance teas, however, were still forbidden. On the one hand, Baker represented Americanism and the modernity that America seemed to embrace and embody. On the other hand, she symbolized primitivism, unfettered passion, and, to conservative critics, uncivilized degeneration and barbarism.
Baker, who performed in Germany in the s, became the rage. Humanity has returned to its origins in the niggersteps, in the shaking and loosened bodies. Only that can help us, we who have become too erratic. It is the deepest expression of our innermost longing. Women, who usually wore very pale face makeup, as was the fashion, smeared dark color on their faces in an attempt to transform themselves into Baker-like offspring. They wanted to look like her, to dance like her, to move like her, to be as erotic as she was. The adulation peaked in when Josephine Baker was appointed juror for a contest held at the Karneval.
The hard pushes are transferred at the top and harm the delicate abdominal organs that soon become ill and disturbed in their function. In many cases, paralysis occurs; now and then, death steps in. The German newspaper Vossische Zeitung reported that a war against the Bubikopf, the short haircut, was also being waged sometimes violently on foreign soil, for example in China, the Philippines, and in Japan. In long-winded jeremiads, they predicted the female sex would soon lose her soul. Everywhere, it seemed, the dance craze and the fashions of the New Woman incited vigorous criticism from health practitioners, conservative politicians, and self- appointed guardians of national moral culture.
These components, however, were not recent additions. Rather, they had historically been the major features in seemingly any and all German debates concerning female fashions. Both ingredients surfaced especially during periods of intense nationalism and economic instability, times of national self-doubt and insecurity. Consequently, both were employed repeatedly when Germans needed someone or something to blame for whatever ills had befallen their nation.
These long-standing elements were anti-French sentiment and anti-Semitism. The first was a complex mixture of admiration and resentment, awe and animosity; one strand conceding the primacy of Paris in the world of fashion and drawing inspiration from its designers, and the other strand resenting that primacy and the feelings of inferiority it provoked. The second, anti-Semitism, proved to be less ambivalent in the long run. It was, therefore, dangerously potent in its appeal, far- reaching in its venom, and catastrophic in its outcome.
As has been chronicled throughout this study, anti-French sentiment in Germany generally paralleled turbulent political events or times of economic distress. But it did not disappear completely. In the fashion world, German designers and ready-to-wear manufacturers recommenced their seasonal visits to the Paris fashion shows. And in , Paris came to Berlin in the form of a fashion show held at the Hotel Kaiserhof, with creations by esteemed French couturiers, such as Chanel and Vionnet.
Paris chic may have continued to set the tone in the s, as it had before, but Berlin schick was making a name for itself worldwide. Additionally, by translating French haute couture and German high fashion designs into stylish, affordable ready-to-wear clothing, the German Konfektion industry had gained many admirers.
Nonetheless, upscale German fashion magazines continued to present photo spreads of the newest Parisian styles next to the best proffered by Berlin. Likewise, German designers knew that some of their clientele still expected them to offer copies of Parisian high fashion. And wealthy German consumers, eyeing the latest from Paris, spent much of their money on French, not German, creations. It did not assuage national insecurities that German women, especially those in the large metropolitan cities, were viewed as among the most beautiful and elegantly dressed women in Europe.
Buying French goods or emulating the styles of French women further exacerbated German lack of confidence. However, it was the French who were causing the German clothing industry its greatest headaches and stiffest competition. She sees a reflection of her being in her clothes. Editors: Rhonda F. Levine and Beth Mintz. This special issue of Critical Sociology celebrates the beginning of the journal when it was called The Insurgent Sociologist. They show the impact of the authors on sociology over the years and try to inspire a new generation of critical sociologists.
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Ruf, Claudia. Emotion regulation - an empirical investigation in female adolescents with nonsuicidal self-injury. Rodic, Donja. From mental-physical comorbidity to somatic symptoms - insights gained from research on symptoms of mental disorders. Hartmann, Francina. Hormonal and genetic modulation of memory processes in healthy humans: focus on cortisol and "HDAC5". Ackermann, Selina. Discharge communication in the emergency department : on quantity- and content-definition and on the benefit of information structuring. Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine. Sleep and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical activity : biological processes associated with psychosocial adjustment during childhood and adolescence.
Muheim, Flavio. Delahaye, Marcel. Entwicklung und Implementierung von tools zur Erforschung von Stresserleben. Corbisiero, Salvatore. Hubacher, Martina. Cognition and cognitive rehabilitation in adult and juvenile patients with multiple sclerosis. Hirni, Daniela. Heinz, Silvia. User research in human-computer interaction : analyzing users' expectations and interactions to improve their experience on websites. Berkowitsch, Nicolas A. Modeling inconsistencies in people's preferential choices with sequential sampling models. Unternaehrer, Eva. Psychosocial stress experience and DNA methylation in humans - implications for stress-adaptation and -resilience.
Oser, Nadine. Kognition und funktionelle Reorganisation bei Kindern mit Rolando-Epilepsie. Huber, Rafael Erich. Cognitive and neural mechanisms of social influence in decision making. Hoffmann, Janina Anna. Pillars of judgment : how memory abilities, task feedback, and cognitive load guide judgment strategies. Andraszewicz, Sandra. Quntitative [i. Quantitative] analysis of risky decision making in economic environments. Hadziselimovic, Nils Omar. Molecular mechanisms of forgetting in caenorhabditis elegans. Spalek, Klara. Sex dependency and genetic modulation of emotional processing and memory : a behavioural and imaging study.
Maire, Micheline. Behavioral, electrophysiological, and cerebral correlates of vulnerability to sleep loss : the impact of sleep pressure, circadian phase, and a PER3 polymorphism. Phillips, Nathaniel David. Adaptive information search and judgment strategies in solitary and competitive tasks. Newark, Patricia Elizabeth. Self-beliefs, resources, and self-regulation in adult ADHD : psychotherapeutical relevance and implications.
Frischknecht Brunner, Marie-Claire. Psychobiological consequences of stress in sensitive developmental stages and potential protective factors. Jung, Emanuel. Winzeler, Katja. Stress in healthy young women : psychophysiological stress response and sleep in the context of adverse childhood experiences and daily stress.
Huber, Marion. Mueller, Sandra E. Therapeutic and psychosocial interventions in the treatment of alcohol-dependent patients : findings from clinical research. Sotirova-Kohli, Milena. Empirical study of the associations between archetypal images and their meanings : evidence of archetypal collective unconscious memory.
Blatter, Judith Christina. Blechert, Jens. The psychophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder and panic disorder : fear conditioning, autonomous underpinnings and issues of measurement. Grieder, Sandra Kay. Tiaden, Corinne. Elke, Astrid. Hersberger, Johanna. Kneser, Cornelia. Zechner, Stefanie. Functional imaging with near-infrared spectroscopy NIRS : correlation between brain response, apoE genotype, and neuropsychological test performance.
Petitjean Gottfried, Sylvie. Methadone treatment for opiate dependent patients in general practice and specialist clinic settings : outcomes at one-year follow-up. Biedert, Esther. Ribi, Sebastian. Integrative genomic analysis of pediatric osteosarcoma. Golyaev, Victor. The role of viral effector proteins in suppression of plant antiviral defenses based on RNA silencing and innate immunity.
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Meier-Girard, Delphine. The fluctuation behavior of heart and respiratory system signals as a quantitative tool for studying long-term environmental exposures and chronic diseases. Herbst, Dominik Alexander. Functional architectures of polyketide synthases. Strelnikova, Natalja. In Vitro and In Vivo macromolecular dynamics : from biofilaments to living cells.
Dreier, Roland F. Innate immune recognition of Salmonella and Francisella : two model intracellular bacterial pathogens. Mehlin, Andrea. Dynamic cantilever magnetometry of reversal processes and phase transitions in individual nanomagnets. Moser, Lucas. Plasma cleaning of diagnostic first mirrors for the nuclear fusion machine ITER. Lingg, Myriam.
The regulation, assessment, and management of orthopaedic medical devices in Mexico : crucial aspects, problems, and steps to improve it. Vegetation succession dynamics at the Alpine timber-line ecotone in the Grindelwald region Northern Swiss Alps. Sievers, Silvan. Merge-and-shrink abstractions for classical planning : theory, strategies, and implementation. Koenka, Israel Joel. Advances in capillary electrophoresis using microfluidics. Gasler, Ioana Teodora.
Synaptic organisation of visual space in primary visual cortex. Pommerening, Florian. New perspectives on cost partitioning for optimal classical planning. Experimental approaches to understand the role of genetic and environmental influences on the microbial community associated with "Daphnia". Bugeanu, Monica. The Wavelet Galerkin method for the polarizable continuum model in quantum chemistry. Garni, Stefanie Nicole. Measurement of polarisation observables for a circularly polarised photon beam and a transversally polarised target in the photoproduction of neutral pion pairs off the proton.
Habacher, Cornelia. An auto-regulatory module controls fat metabolism in "Caenorhabditis elegans". Kramis, Simon. Beck, Katharina Richarda. Engeli, Roger Thomas. Ranjan, Vishal. Admittance and noise detection in mesoscopic systems via GHz impedance matching. Mayer, Jan Axel. Light management films for enhanced harvesting in printable photovoltaics.
Nazi Chic - Fashioning Women in the Third Reich | Nazi Germany | Auschwitz Concentration Camp
Allemann, Samuel S. Adherence to polypharmacy from a pharmaceutical care perspective : evalution of an electronic medication dispenser and of tailored adherence interventions in primary care. Arnold, Stefan A. Nanoliter sample preparation for electron microscopy and single-cell analysis. Reither, Klaus. Improving the diagnosis of tuberculosis - clinical evaluation of four new diagnostics. Innovating quality control mechanisms in aseptic drug manufacturing by means of isothermal microcalorimetry and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy.
Strajhar, Petra. The effects of xenobiotics on steroidogenesis in human: "in vitro" and "in vivo" investigations. El Idrissi, Mohamed. Design of supramolecular nanomaterials : from molecular recognition to hierarchical self-assembly. Zeller, Peter. H3K9me is dispensable for C. Wang, Bo. The role of visuomotor coupling in the development of sensory processing in mouse visual cortex.
Iula, Stefano. On local and nonlocal Moser-Trudinger inequalities. Hoffmann, Viktor. Ferrocene as functional subunits in macrocycles.
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- Reasons…:A Book of Psalms, Praises & Prose?
- Emeutes urbaines et protestations (Nouveaux débats) (French Edition).
- Lart de représenter un engagement personnel (Champs visuels) (French Edition).
- Nazi Chic - Fashioning Women in the Third Reich.
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Alam, Md. Dissecting the molecular function of neutral glycosphingolipids in ovarian cancer progression. Sprenger, Frederik. Neurotoxic impact of protein fragmentation and aggregation in tauopathy mouse models. Sejwal, Kushal. Biyani, Nikhil. Novel image processing tools and techniques in cryo-electron microscopy. Hyder, Ali. Local and nonlocal problems regarding the Q-curvature and the Adams-Moser-Trudinger inequalities. Rizzi, Giorgio. Investigation of the neural substrates of motor and nociceptive behavior.
Pletscher, Flurina. Assessment of stem cell pluripotency using an "in vitro" 3D perfusion-based culture model. Lomora, Mihai. Bio-hybrid polymer membranes as tools for mimicking cell compartments. Fisch, Urs. Characterization of microglia in the rat subventricular zone after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. Non-equilibrium dynamics of biological matter in microfluidic environments - from red blood cell flickering to conformational transitions of actin filaments.
Lang, Mathias Jakob. The role of coronin 1 in T cell signalling and development. Egger, Bernhard. Semantic Morphable Models. Raemy, Matthieu. Hybridization between pond turtles Emys orbicularis subspecies in natural and human-mediated contact zones. Barratt, Christopher D. Biodiversity patterns and conservation of the coastal forests of Eastern Africa.
Vladyka, Anton. Detailed analysis of single molecular junctions for novel computing architectures. Kortylewski, Adam. Model-based image analysis for forensic shoe print recognition. Schrade, Constantin. Majorana bound states in topological insulators and nanowires. Grossen, Philip. Nanomedicines in cancer therapy : from long-circulating drug carriers to novel therapeutic concepts. Flury, Valentin. Novel insights into mechanisms partitioning chromatin states. Lehmann, Mario. Multidentate thioether-based ligands controlling the stability and size of gold nanoparticles.
Bittencourt-Silva, Gabriela Bueno. Lacuna Mozambique : adding an important piece to the African jigsaw puzzle. Knop, Matthias. Identification and characterization of a novel copper dependent enzyme. Hunziker, Matthias. Sprecher, Kathrin. Cohesive properties of the caulobacter crescentus holdfast adhesin are regulated by a novel c-di-GMP effector protein. Heinimann, Oliver. Hadron-quark phase transitions in hybrid stars and core-collapse supernovae. Chowdhury, Ananya. Cellular and network mechanisms for learning and memory consolidation. Biomimetic engineering of colloidal nanoarchitectures with "in vitro" and "in vivo" functionality.
Adler, Camille. New lipid-based formulation approaches and characterization tools for hot-melt extrusion. Zivanov, Jasenko. Reconstruction of intricate surfaces from scanning electron microscopy. Osmani, Bekim. Nanostructured dielectric elastomer transducers for smart implants. Gerspach, Michael Adrian. Nanofluidic systems for individual and contact-free electrostatic trapping of charged objects. Appel, Patrick. Scanning nanomagnetometry : probing magnetism with single spins in diamond.
Usemann, Jakob. Immunological and genetic determinants of pulmonary outcome in school aged children. Daum, Janine. Keller, Sarah. Heteroleptic light-emitting copper I complexes with possible applications in light-emitting electrochemical cells. Stoller, Andrea. RAS peptide profiles in arterial hypertension.
Revisiting the roles of replicase complex proteins in tobamovirus replication and suppression of RNA silencing. Nahar, Nazmun. A behaviour change communication intervention trial to reduce the risk of Nipah virus spillover in Bangladesh. Saha, Santanu. Soft and accurate norm conserving pseudopotentials and their application for structure prediction. Trebosc, Vincent. Adjuvant drug therapy to overcome antibiotic resistances : drug target evaluation in multidrug resistant pathogens. Meyer, Elisabeth Martha Maria.
Cortical representation of fear learning : Illustrationen, Diagramme. Urech, Christian. Subgroups of cremona groups. Palma, Mario. Magnetic cooling and on-chip thermometry for nanoelectronics below 10 mK. Teh, Hong Ying. Role of polycomb repressive complex 2 in thymic epithelial development and function. Ajuh, Elvis Tasih. Functional characterization of the non-coding control region of human polyomaviruses.
Lanzilotto, Angelo. The porphyrin triplet state : from porphyrin-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine conjugates to photocatalysis. Kilinc, Ayse Nihan. Epigenetic mechanisms regulating epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity in breast cancer. Sergachev, Ilia. High-power and narrow-linewidth optimizations of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers. Sagar, Sanjay Gupta. Monitoring of electromagnetic field exposure in an international context. Handschin, Clevin. Quantum transport in encapsulated graphene "p-n" junctions. Thieme, Michael. Stress-induced mobilization of retrotransposons for plant breeding.
Vonghachack, Youthanavanh. Domcke, Silvia. Influence of DNA methylation on transcription factor binding. Demirci, Erhan. Functional asymmetry within the Sec61 translocon. Himmelsbach, Dominik. Hartl, Dominik. Design principles of promoter and enhancer activity in mammalian genomes. Bwong, Beryl A. At the crossroads of two biodiversity hotspots : the biogeographic patterns of Shimba Hills, Kenya. Renggli, Sabine.
Promoting universal health coverage in Tanzania : towards improved health service quality and financial protection. Bianco, Andrea. Characterization and visualization of reflective properties of surfaces. Hierarchical matrix techniques for partial differential equations with random input data. Thodkar, Kishan. Chemical vapor deposited graphene for quantum Hall resistance standards. Deshpande, Ishan. Zenklusen, Isabelle.
Functionally active serum and monoclonal antibody responses targeting the pre-erythrocytic stage of Plasmodium falciparum in Tanzanian adults after vaccination with purified, live-attenuated sporozoites. Studer, Gabriel. Efficient algorithms in protein modelling. Schnyder, Svenia. Regulation of skeletal muscle and kidney metabolism by the PGC-1 family of transcriptional coactivators.
Richter, Bettina. The brittle-to-viscous transition in experimentally deformed quartz gouge. Zahouli, Julien Bi Zahouli. Kaufmann, Dinu. Semi-parametric Gaussian copula models for machine learning. Turco, Silvia. Barfuss, Arne. Hybrid spin-nanomechanics with single spins in diamond mechanical oscillators. Rion, Nathalie. Genomic targeting and function of polycomb repressive complex 2 and ISWI chromatin remodelers.
Steiner, Bigna. Aspects of archaeobotanical methodology applied to the sediments of archaeological wetland deposits. Benning, Friederike. Structure and conformational dynamics of fatty acid synthases. Schmidt, Hauke Christoph. Through-space interactions in charge-transfer reactions. Gamart, Julie. SMAD4: a multifunctional regulator of limb bud initiation and outgrowth. Zibulski, Petra. Wedler, Jonas. Valorization perspectives of agro-bio waste in pharmaceutics : examples of Moso bamboo leaves and rose oil distillation waste water. Nienhold, Ronny. Genetic lesions and clinical implications in myeloproliferative neoplasms.
Abakar, Mahamat Fayiz. Creating a framework towards integrated health syndromic surveillance and response in Africa. Weigele, Pirmin Jonas. Stretching and breaking symmetry of the persistent spin helix in quantum transport. Drinnenberg, Antonia. Local and global interneuron function in the retina. Cyclic di-GMP controls a bacterial cell cycle phosphorylation network.
Pannwitz, Andrea. Photoinduced electron and proton transfer with ruthenium complexes and organic donors and acceptors. Bozicevic, Alen. Evaluation of pollen secondary metabolites in exacerbation of nonallergic asthma, and development of computer-assisted LC-MS batch processing, clustering, and visualization. Towards osteochondral regeneration with human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells in a functionalized hydrogel system. Heindorf, Matthias. Role of mouse motor cortex in the behavioral response to unpredictable visual feedback.
Brackmann, Maximilian. Mechanistic and structural insights into the type VI secretion system tail of "vibrio cholerae". Microbial inoculants : global reliability and specific application in a mixed cropping system on marginal land in India. Awoonor-Williams, J. Implementation research for integrated health system strengthening in Ghana : towards tipping point for improved health systems performance and population health.